In this grade level, the students will learn and appreciate God’s creation; all that God makes is good and he shows his goodness, love and presence with us. Jesus sends us the Holy Spirit to be our helper and our guide in our fight against temptation. At the heart of the Old Testament is the commandment to love God with all our heart, soul, and strength. The old covenant consisted of over 600 laws, governing every aspect of life. Among them was the command to love one’s neighbor as oneself. Jesus, the living embodiment of the law, elevated love of neighbor to an essential condition on which our love of God depends. He summed up the whole law in this-the love of God and that of our neighbor is intertwined. Love of neighbor is our response to the love of God for us. The promises of the Beatitudes flesh out the Great Commandment. The Beatitudes teach that happiness comes to those who place their trust in God rather than in power, possessions, or pleasures. It reflects the way Jesus lived. The students are attracted to the ideals of fairness and happiness described by the Beatitudes. They will appreciate that their efforts can help bring peace, justice, and caring to their world.
The language arts curriculum includes objectives that support students’ development in the skills of writing, listening, and oral language. The grade 4 Reading program aims at establishing good reading habits while developing comprehension strategies and vocabulary. The students will be introduced to approaches to analyze texts appropriate to their level when reading fiction and non-fiction books confidently, fluently, and independently. These skills are developed through explicit instruction and guided practice. Through daily classroom experiences, the children will write fluently and effectively and they will use speech responsibly to inform, entertain, and influence others. They will be able to listen for a sustained period of time and for a variety of purposes. Pupils will use a wide range of vocabulary and complex sentence structures to clearly express and explain their thoughts, needs, feelings, opinions and ideas.
Grade 4 Math provides more activities that will develop further the acquisition of mathematical concepts and skills learned in the previous grades. The lessons built in the context of life-related situations help students retain and apply theories they learn. Basic operations deal with larger whole numbers and decimals, like and unlike fractions, and use simple formulas to solve problems in geometry.
The Science course for Fourth grade has been developed to reflect real world situations through the use of hands-on opportunities for learning. Learning Science, at this stage, is not necessarily about memorizing the “right answers” but rather about the process of asking questions, solving problems, and making decisions based on the information gathered. The aim of the course is to lay a helpful foundation for the correct interpretation of results based upon scientific observations.
The Social Studies course for Grade 4 has been designed to help students build geography skills and an understanding of the world they live in. Students will also be motivated to find out historical facts and to discover the true meaning of responsible citizenship.
Reading: Literature – Grade 4
Key Ideas and Details
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.1Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.2Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.3Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
Craft and Structure
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.4Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.5Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.6Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.7Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.
- (RL.4.8 not applicable to literature)
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.9Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
- ELA-Literacy.RL.4.10By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Reading: Informational Text
Key Ideas and Details
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.1Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.2Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.3Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
Craft and Structure
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.4Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.5Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.6Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.7Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.8Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.9Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
- ELA-Literacy.RI.4.10By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Reading: Foundational Skills
Phonics and Word Recognition
- ELA-Literacy.RF.4.3Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
- ELA-Literacy.RF.4.3aUse combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
- ELA-Literacy.RF.4.4Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
- ELA-Literacy.RF.4.4aRead grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
- ELA-Literacy.RF.4.4bRead grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
- ELA-Literacy.RF.4.4cUse context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
Writing – Grade 4
Text Types and Purposes
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.1Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.1aIntroduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.1bProvide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.1cLink opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.1dProvide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.2Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.2aIntroduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.2bDevelop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.2cLink ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.2dUse precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.2eProvide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.3Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.3aOrient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.3bUse dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.3cUse a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.3dUse concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.3eProvide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
Production and Distribution of Writing
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.4Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.5With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 4 here.)
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.6With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.7Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.8Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.9Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.9aApply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.9bApply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).
Range of Writing
- ELA-Literacy.W.4.10Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Speaking and Listening – Grade 4
Comprehension and Collaboration
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1aCome to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1bFollow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1cPose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1dReview the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.2Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.3Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.4Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.5Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
- ELA-Literacy.SL.4.6Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 here for specific expectations.)
Language – Grade 4
Conventions of Standard English
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.1Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.1aUse relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.1bForm and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.1cUse modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.1dOrder adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.1eForm and use prepositional phrases.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.1fProduce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.*
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.1gCorrectly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).*
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.2Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.2aUse correct capitalization.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.2bUse commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.2cUse a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.2dSpell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
Knowledge of Language
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.3Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.3aChoose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.3bChoose punctuation for effect.*
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.3cDifferentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.4Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.4aUse context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.4bUse common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.4cConsult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.5Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.5aExplain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.5bRecognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.5cDemonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
- ELA-Literacy.L.4.6Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation,and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
Math: Operations and Algebraic Theory
Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.
- Math.Content.4.OA.A.1Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.
- Math.Content.4.OA.A.2Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.1
- Math.Content.4.OA.A.3Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.
Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.
- Math.Content.4.OA.B.4Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite.
Generate and analyze patterns.
- Math.Content.4.OA.C.5Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.
Math: Number and Operations in Base 10
Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.
- Math.Content.4.NBT.A.1Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.
- Math.Content.4.NBT.A.2Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
- Math.Content.4.NBT.A.3Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
- Math.Content.4.NBT.B.4Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
- Math.Content.4.NBT.B.5Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
- Math.Content.4.NBT.B.6Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
1Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.
Math: Number and Operations in Fractions
Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
- Math.Content.4.NF.A.1Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.
- Math.Content.4.NF.A.2Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
Build fractions from unit fractions.
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.3Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.3aUnderstand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.3bDecompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.3cAdd and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.3dSolve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.4Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.4aUnderstand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.4bUnderstand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.)
- Math.Content.4.NF.B.4cSolve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?
Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
- Math.Content.4.NF.C.5Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.2For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.
- Math.Content.4.NF.C.6Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram.
- Math.Content.4.NF.C.7Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.
1 Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 100.
2 Students who can generate equivalent fractions can develop strategies for adding fractions with unlike denominators in general. But addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in general is not a requirement at this grade.
Math: Measurement and Data
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements.
- Math.Content.4.MD.A.1Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), …
- Math.Content.4.MD.A.2Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
- Math.Content.4.MD.A.3Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
Represent and interpret data.
- Math.Content.4.MD.B.4Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
- Math.Content.4.MD.C.5Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
- Math.Content.4.MD.C.5aAn angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles.
- Math.Content.4.MD.C.5bAn angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.
- Math.Content.4.MD.C.6Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.
- Math.Content.4.MD.C.7Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.
Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.
- Math.Content.4.G.A.1Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.
- Math.Content.4.G.A.2Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.
- Math.Content.4.G.A.3Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.